@article{baas_emergence_1997,
title = {On {Emergence} and {Explanation}},
volume = {25},
issn = {0769-4113},
url = {https://www.persee.fr/doc/intel_0769-4113_1997_num_25_2_1558},
doi = {10/ggdf9z},
abstract = {Emergence is a universal phenomenon that can be defined mathematically in a very general way. This is useful for the study of scientifically legitimate explanations of complex systems, here defined as hyperstructures. A requirement is that observation mechanisms are considered within the general framework. Two notions of emergence are defined, and specific examples of these are discussed.},
language = {en},
number = {2},
urldate = {2019-11-22},
journal = {Intellectica. Revue de l'Association pour la Recherche Cognitive},
author = {Baas, Nils Andreas and Emmeche, Claus},
year = {1997},
note = {ZSCC: 0000201},
keywords = {Biology, Emergence},
pages = {67--83}
}
@article{heckerman_tutorial_1995,
title = {A {Tutorial} on {Learning} {With} {Bayesian} {Networks}},
url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/a-tutorial-on-learning-with-bayesian-networks/},
abstract = {A Bayesian network is a graphical model that encodes probabilistic relationships among variables of interest. When used in conjunction with statistical techniques, the graphical model has several advantages for data analysis. One, because the model encodes dependencies among all variables, it readily handles situations where some data entries are missing. Two, a Bayesian network can …},
language = {en-US},
urldate = {2019-11-22},
author = {Heckerman, David},
month = mar,
year = {1995},
note = {ZSCC: 0000058},
keywords = {Bayesianism, Classical ML, Machine learning}
}
@article{siegelmann_computational_1995,
title = {On the {Computational} {Power} of {Neural} {Nets}},
volume = {50},
issn = {0022-0000},
url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000085710136},
doi = {10/dvwtc3},
abstract = {This paper deals with finite size networks which consist of interconnections of synchronously evolving processors. Each processor updates its state by applying a "sigmoidal" function to a linear combination of the previous states of all units. We prove that one may simulate all Turing machines by such nets. In particular, one can simulate any multi-stack Turing machine in real time, and there is a net made up of 886 processors which computes a universal partial-recursive function. Products (high order nets) are not required, contrary to what had been stated in the literature. Non-deterministic Turing machines can be simulated by non-deterministic rational nets, also in real time. The simulation result has many consequences regarding the decidability, or more generally the complexity, of questions about recursive nets.},
language = {en},
number = {1},
urldate = {2019-11-28},
journal = {Journal of Computer and System Sciences},
author = {Siegelmann, H. T. and Sontag, E. D.},
month = feb,
year = {1995},
note = {ZSCC: 0000002},
keywords = {Classical ML, Machine learning},
pages = {132--150}
}
@article{jones_probabilistic_1989,
title = {Probabilistic {Non}-determinism},
language = {en},
author = {Jones, Claire},
year = {1989},
note = {ZSCC: 0000000},
keywords = {Denotational semantics, Probabilistic programming, Programming language theory},
pages = {198}
}
@article{girard_linear_1987,
title = {Linear logic},
volume = {50},
issn = {0304-3975},
url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304397587900454},
doi = {10/cmv5mj},
abstract = {The familiar connective of negation is broken into two operations: linear negation which is the purely negative part of negation and the modality “of course” which has the meaning of a reaffirmation. Following this basic discovery, a completely new approach to the whole area between constructive logics and programmation is initiated.},
language = {en},
number = {1},
urldate = {2019-11-26},
journal = {Theoretical Computer Science},
author = {Girard, Jean-Yves},
month = jan,
year = {1987},
note = {ZSCC: 0005505},
keywords = {Denotational semantics, Linear logic, Type theory},
pages = {1--101}
}
@article{plotkin_lcf_1977,
title = {{LCF} considered as a programming language},
volume = {5},
issn = {0304-3975},
url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304397577900445},
doi = {10/dc7fdn},
abstract = {The paper studies connections between denotational and operational semantics for a simple programming language based on LCF. It begins with the connection between the behaviour of a program and its denotation. It turns out that a program denotes ⊥ in any of several possible semantics if it does not terminate. From this it follows that if two terms have the same denotation in one of these semantics, they have the same behaviour in all contexts. The converse fails for all the semantics. If, however, the language is extended to allow certain parallel facilities behavioural equivalence does coincide with denotational equivalence in one of the semantics considered, which may therefore be called “fully abstract”. Next a connection is given which actually determines the semantics up to isomorphism from the behaviour alone. Conversely, by allowing further parallel facilities, every r.e. element of the fully abstract semantics becomes definable, thus characterising the programming language, up to interdefinability, from the set of r.e. elements of the domains of the semantics.},
language = {en},
number = {3},
urldate = {2019-11-26},
journal = {Theoretical Computer Science},
author = {Plotkin, G. D.},
month = dec,
year = {1977},
note = {ZSCC: 0001407},
keywords = {Probabilistic programming, Programming language theory},
pages = {223--255}
}
@article{rosen_representation_1958,
title = {The representation of biological systems from the standpoint of the theory of categories},
volume = {20},
issn = {0007-4985, 1522-9602},
url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF02477890},
doi = {10/fdgzxz},
language = {en},
number = {4},
urldate = {2019-11-22},
journal = {The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics},
author = {Rosen, Robert},
month = dec,
year = {1958},
note = {ZSCC: 0000262},
keywords = {Biology, Sketchy},
pages = {317--341}
}