@article{vakar_domain_2018,
title = {A {Domain} {Theory} for {Statistical} {Probabilistic} {Programming}},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.04196},
abstract = {We give an adequate denotational semantics for languages with recursive higher-order types, continuous probability distributions, and soft constraints. These are expressive languages for building Bayesian models of the kinds used in computational statistics and machine learning. Among them are untyped languages, similar to Church and WebPPL, because our semantics allows recursive mixed-variance datatypes. Our semantics justifies important program equivalences including commutativity. Our new semantic model is based on `quasi-Borel predomains'. These are a mixture of chain-complete partial orders (cpos) and quasi-Borel spaces. Quasi-Borel spaces are a recent model of probability theory that focuses on sets of admissible random elements. Probability is traditionally treated in cpo models using probabilistic powerdomains, but these are not known to be commutative on any class of cpos with higher order functions. By contrast, quasi-Borel predomains do support both a commutative probabilistic powerdomain and higher-order functions. As we show, quasi-Borel predomains form both a model of Fiore's axiomatic domain theory and a model of Kock's synthetic measure theory.},
urldate = {2019-10-10},
journal = {arXiv:1811.04196 [cs]},
author = {Vákár, Matthijs and Kammar, Ohad and Staton, Sam},
month = nov,
year = {2018},
note = {arXiv: 1811.04196}
}
@article{scibior_denotational_2017,
title = {Denotational validation of higher-order {Bayesian} inference},
volume = {2},
issn = {24751421},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03219},
doi = {10.1145/3158148},
abstract = {We present a modular semantic account of Bayesian inference algorithms for probabilistic programming languages, as used in data science and machine learning. Sophisticated inference algorithms are often explained in terms of composition of smaller parts. However, neither their theoretical justification nor their implementation reflects this modularity. We show how to conceptualise and analyse such inference algorithms as manipulating intermediate representations of probabilistic programs using higher-order functions and inductive types, and their denotational semantics. Semantic accounts of continuous distributions use measurable spaces. However, our use of higher-order functions presents a substantial technical difficulty: it is impossible to define a measurable space structure over the collection of measurable functions between arbitrary measurable spaces that is compatible with standard operations on those functions, such as function application. We overcome this difficulty using quasi-Borel spaces, a recently proposed mathematical structure that supports both function spaces and continuous distributions. We define a class of semantic structures for representing probabilistic programs, and semantic validity criteria for transformations of these representations in terms of distribution preservation. We develop a collection of building blocks for composing representations. We use these building blocks to validate common inference algorithms such as Sequential Monte Carlo and Markov Chain Monte Carlo. To emphasize the connection between the semantic manipulation and its traditional measure theoretic origins, we use Kock's synthetic measure theory. We demonstrate its usefulness by proving a quasi-Borel counterpart to the Metropolis-Hastings-Green theorem.},
number = {POPL},
urldate = {2019-10-10},
journal = {Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages},
author = {Ścibior, Adam and Kammar, Ohad and Vákár, Matthijs and Staton, Sam and Yang, Hongseok and Cai, Yufei and Ostermann, Klaus and Moss, Sean K. and Heunen, Chris and Ghahramani, Zoubin},
month = dec,
year = {2017},
note = {arXiv: 1711.03219},
pages = {1--29}
}
@article{heunen_convenient_2017,
title = {A {Convenient} {Category} for {Higher}-{Order} {Probability} {Theory}},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.02547},
abstract = {Higher-order probabilistic programming languages allow programmers to write sophisticated models in machine learning and statistics in a succinct and structured way, but step outside the standard measure-theoretic formalization of probability theory. Programs may use both higher-order functions and continuous distributions, or even define a probability distribution on functions. But standard probability theory does not handle higher-order functions well: the category of measurable spaces is not cartesian closed. Here we introduce quasi-Borel spaces. We show that these spaces: form a new formalization of probability theory replacing measurable spaces; form a cartesian closed category and so support higher-order functions; form a well-pointed category and so support good proof principles for equational reasoning; and support continuous probability distributions. We demonstrate the use of quasi-Borel spaces for higher-order functions and probability by: showing that a well-known construction of probability theory involving random functions gains a cleaner expression; and generalizing de Finetti's theorem, that is a crucial theorem in probability theory, to quasi-Borel spaces.},
urldate = {2019-10-10},
journal = {arXiv:1701.02547 [cs, math]},
author = {Heunen, Chris and Kammar, Ohad and Staton, Sam and Yang, Hongseok},
month = jan,
year = {2017},
note = {arXiv: 1701.02547}
}