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MODEL CHECKING AND STATE MACHINES

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## Operads and Phylogenetic Trees

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- Baez, John C. (Author)
- Otter, Nina (Author)

Title

Operads and Phylogenetic Trees

Abstract

We construct an operad $\mathrm{Phyl}$ whose operations are the edge-labelled trees used in phylogenetics. This operad is the coproduct of $\mathrm{Com}$, the operad for commutative semigroups, and $[0,\infty)$, the operad with unary operations corresponding to nonnegative real numbers, where composition is addition. We show that there is a homeomorphism between the space of $n$-ary operations of $\mathrm{Phyl}$ and $\mathcal{T}_n\times [0,\infty)^{n+1}$, where $\mathcal{T}_n$ is the space of metric $n$-trees introduced by Billera, Holmes and Vogtmann. Furthermore, we show that the Markov models used to reconstruct phylogenetic trees from genome data give coalgebras of $\mathrm{Phyl}$. These always extend to coalgebras of the larger operad $\mathrm{Com} + [0,\infty]$, since Markov processes on finite sets converge to an equilibrium as time approaches infinity. We show that for any operad $O$, its coproduct with $[0,\infty]$ contains the operad $W(O)$ constucted by Boardman and Vogt. To prove these results, we explicitly describe the coproduct of operads in terms of labelled trees.

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2015

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ZSCC: NoCitationData[s1] arXiv: 1512.03337

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Baez, J. C., & Otter, N. (2015). Operads and Phylogenetic Trees.

BIOLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY

MODEL CHECKING AND STATE MACHINES

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